Archive: Nov 2013

  1. Sinclair transportation

    While never quite having the resources or dedication to experience Sir Clive Sinclair’s transport revolutions in the same wholehearted manner that I did his computer breakthroughs, I have done my best to at least experience them.

    The Sinclair C5 was his first and most famous vehicle. Launched by Sinclair Vehicles Ltd in the United Kingdom on 10 January 1985, it was a battery-assisted tricycle with a top speed of 15 miles per hour (the fastest allowed in the UK without a driving licence). It was widely criticised for being impractical, if not dangerous, on the UK’s roads and in the British climate (a point reinforced by the January launch). By August of the same year production had ceased, with only 17,000 sold. 1

    However, back in the late 1980s I got to ride in one of them. Below is photographic evidence of my one and only Sinclair C5 excursion.

    Photograph: Sinclair C5 on the Norfolk roads, late 1980s

    Me, driving the Sinclair C5 on some Norfolk back roads in the late 1980s

    Photograph: The Sinclair C5

    The Sinclair C5, with an enhanced battery pack to help on the hills(!) of Norfolk

    The Sinclair C5 belonged to the mother of a friend of the family. She used it for regular trips to the local shops. I remember her telling me that she only pedalled when she thought no-one was looking. I also remember that someone had installed an extra battery for her – to give the machine a bit of extra impetus on the hill near her house. I loved every minute of my C5 drive – marshalled I’m sure by my probably very nervous parents.

    The C5 remained popular with a small group of fans. Events have been held all over the world – well, at least as far as the Netherlands – and some went to a lot of effort customising their vehicle. For more information, a good place to start is

    After the C5 and the collapse of his computer empire that its failure helped precipitate, Sir Clive went back to the drawing board and worked on a number of electric motor attachments for normal road bikes. These ‘Zetas’ were followed by the ‘Zike’ in 1995, a full-sized bike with a battery stored in the frame. However, neither really caught my attention – or, it seems, that of many other people.

    Newspaper clipping for the Zike

    This newspaper advertisement is from the site of someone who has refurbished a Zike (C5Martin).

    However, in 2006 Sir Clive was back with something a good deal more interesting – the A-bike. The A-bike was a folding bike, designed to be used by commuters, with an emphasis on portability and ease of use – with all of the mechanisms internal to the bike. While sales figures are a little difficult to come by, the A-bike was briefly a news sensation, although even from the outset it was clear that while the bike was indeed very good at being portable, it was not that good at being a bike.

    A friend of mine acquired one for review purposes, and he was kind enough to let me have a go.

    Photograph: The A-bike, ridden by the author

    Me, staying on the A-bike

    The C5 felt safer.

    Still, I think I only fell off a couple of times, and he assured me that it got easier with practice. And despite my difficulties, I did consider buying one for a while. I didn’t though. There were plans for an electric version, but I’m not sure it ever materialised. However, the latest iteration, the A-Bike City, with larger wheels and numerous other iterations to improve the ride is still available.

    Sir Clive moved on though, with plans for a new electric bike called the X-1.

    Photograph: the X-1

    Sinclair’s X-1, yet to be made available

    It was due to launch in July 2011.

    I’m still waiting.


    1. There is a good deal more information on the Sinclair C5 on the C5 wikipedia page
  2. A WordPress plugin: Icon Table of Contents and Menus

    Though I haven’t posted much to this site recently, I have been busy working on a number of different projects. One of these projects has involved developing a new WordPress plugin to generate a table of contents. This is the first plugin that I’ve taken the time to submit to the plugin directory.


    While I have been working with PHP and WordPress for many years, and have developed a number of bespoke plugin solutions for clients as well as for my own sites, this is the first time that I’ve submitted a plugin to the public domain. That’s primarily because, even for a relatively straightforward bit of code, there is a big step in moving from something that is going to be used in a controlled environment to something that is designed to be used by anyone.

    The plugin itself is relatively straightforward in terms of its output – it creates an icon which can be expanded to display a table of contents for the HTML of the current page.

    The way that it generates this table (actually an unordered HTML list) is a little interesting and draws on some work which I did a long time ago when building a reverse proxy to sit between some content and a web server. This proxy was used to display content in a unified format using static HTML templates but with content generated from multiple sources and different content management systems.

    As part of that process all of the fetched content was built into a PHP DOMDocument so that it could be easily manipulated and inserted into the static HTML templates. In some cases, that required quite a lot of tidying up of the generated HTML content, using PHP’s Tidy function and other bespoke PHP code to clean everything up. It’s aspects of this code that are used in my apparently fairly simple new table of contents plugin.

    So how does the plugin work?

    The plugin works by manipulating the content of the current post or page by adding a WordPress filter on the content. When applied the plugin fetches the content for the page or post using the WordPress function the_content(). This returns a string which is loaded into a PHP DOMDocument. It determines the charset from the database and sets the appropriate HTML headers and metadata to make sure it gets processed properly by the DOMDocument.

    It then uses DOMXPath to query the DOMDocument to get the HTML headings we are interested in (h1 to h4):

    $xpath->query('//*[self::h1 or self::h2 or self::h3 or self::h4]')

    Each of these HTML headings then gets its own bookmark based on its position within the page hierarchy. This ‘id’ is calculated from the DOM fragment that is being generated to display the unordered list at the top of the page:

    $levels = array();
    // here $head represents root level of the current section
    // in the form of a <ul> element
    $tmp = &$head; 
    while (!is_null($tmp) && $tmp != $frag) {
       $levels[] = $tmp->childNodes->length;
       $tmp = &$tmp->parentNode->parentNode;
    $id = 'section'.implode('.', array_reverse($levels));

    This is the sort of content manipulation we had to do a lot of when creating our reverse proxy content processing system, though in this case I followed the recommendation of a very useful StackOverflow answer.

    Once all of this processing is done, the plugin calls a DOM-to-string function called get_content_as_string(). This function is derived directly from code from the earlier system. It works by iterating through each node and building a string which can be returned and displayed as the content of the page.

    function get_content_as_string($node) {   
       $str = "";
       if ($node) {
          if ($node->nodeName=="script"||$node->nodeName=="style"||
    $node->nodeName=="canvas") $str .= $node->nodeValue;   
          if ($node->childNodes) {
             foreach ($node->childNodes as $cnode) {
                if ($cnode->nodeType==XML_TEXT_NODE) {
                   $str .= $cnode->nodeValue;
                else if ($cnode->nodeType==XML_ELEMENT_NODE) {
                   $str .= "<" . $cnode->nodeName;
                   if ($attribnodes=$cnode->attributes) {
                      $str .= " ";
                      foreach ($attribnodes as $anode) {
                         if ($anode) {
                         $nodeName = $anode->nodeName;
                         $nodeValue = $anode->nodeValue;
                         $str .= $nodeName . "=\"" . $nodeValue . "\" ";
                   $nodeText = $this->get_content_as_string($cnode);
                   if (empty($nodeText) && !$attribnodes)
                      $str .= " />";        // unary
                      $str .= ">" . $nodeText . "nodeName . ">";
             // A bit of cleanup
             $str = preg_replace("/\s>/si",">",$str);
             $str = preg_replace("/\><\/input>/is","/>",$str);
             $str = preg_replace("/<\/img>/is","",$str);
             return preg_replace("/

    The function itself can be modified to do quite a bit of content tidying itself, but in this case does its best to leave the content alone. It’s not a perfect solution, in that it isn’t designed to handle very large strings, but in most use cases this isn’t likely to be an issue. If anyone ever finds that it is, I promise to do some more work on streamlining the code.

    Find out more

    You can find more about the plugin itself, including details of how to download, install and apply it to your templates, here:

    Updated on 7 November 2013, to reflect change in plugin to handle charsets properly (version 1.2)